Read The Night Battles: Witchcraft & Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth & Seventeenth Centuries by Carlo Ginzburg John Tedeschi Anne Tedeschi Online


Based on research in the Inquisitorial archives, the book recounts the story of a peasant fertility cult centred on the benandanti. These men and women regarded themselves as professional anti-witches, who (in dream-like states) apparently fought ritual battles against witches and wizards, to protect their villages and harvests. If they won, the harvest would be good, if tBased on research in the Inquisitorial archives, the book recounts the story of a peasant fertility cult centred on the benandanti. These men and women regarded themselves as professional anti-witches, who (in dream-like states) apparently fought ritual battles against witches and wizards, to protect their villages and harvests. If they won, the harvest would be good, if they lost, there would be famine. The inquisitors tried to fit them into their pre-existing images of the witches� sabbat. The result of this cultural clash which lasted over a century, was the slow metamorphosis of the benandanti into their enemies � the witches. Carlo Ginzburg shows clearly how this transformation of the popular notion of witchcraft was manipulated by the Inquisitors, and disseminated all over Europe and even to the New World. The peasants� fragmented and confused testimony reaches us with great immediacy, enabling us to identify a level of popular belief which constitutes a valuable witness for the reconstruction of the peasant way of thinking of this age. ...

Title : The Night Battles: Witchcraft & Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth & Seventeenth Centuries
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ISBN : 9780801843860
Format Type : Paperback
Number of Pages : 232 Pages
Status : Available For Download
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The Night Battles: Witchcraft & Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth & Seventeenth Centuries Reviews

  • Katie
    2019-05-12 10:36

    This book had a bit of an uphill battle against expectations: I've been hearing about it for years before I finally got around to reading it, and I already knew the rather amazing central focus. I also really liked The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-century Miller. Night Battles is fascinating. Not so much on a page-to-page level: if anything, it can sometimes get bogged down in individual details there. But it's central conceit is really amazing: it's a study of a group of peasants in Fruili who called themselves benandanti, most easily translated as "do-gooders." These benandanti were "born with the caul" (when a piece of membrane covers the newborn's head), an event which destined them to a period of service as what essentially amounts to an anti-witch. Four times a year during the Ember Days the benandanti would arms themselves with sticks made of fennel and go out into the nearby fields. There, they would 'battle' with witches armed with sorghum sticks. The outcome of the battle would destine the region to a fertile harvest or a period of famine. It's a wild story, one that sounds like it's cribbed from a fantasy novel (but if you go read Guy Gavriel Kay's ) Tigana, you'll find out it's the other way around). There are witches, werewolves, and fortune tellers all over these pages. Ginzburg explores the potential origin of these ideas, but his real focus is in how they were perceived. Much like The Cheese and the Worms, this is a book about how popular religion intersects and interacts with its more highly-educated counterpart. The benandanti were originally met with confusion but at least tentative acceptance: the inquisitors honestly didn't really seem to know what to make of them, and if they seemed like solid Christians and were willing to name some witches, they were often let go. As time progressed, however, Ginzburg traces a subtle trend in inquisitorial questioning, suggesting that the Holy Office made increasing efforts to make these benandanti fit into the pattern that was then easily identifiable as witchcraft. They were repeatedly asked what role the devil had in their gatherings, whether they were supposed to abjure God, and whether infanticide played a role. By the end, the 'night battles' of the benandanti had been assimilated into the idea of the witches's sabbath. It's an undeniably interesting book, as all of Ginzburg's seem to be. It's not always clear or accessible in its presentation, though - Ginzburg's style is to present a mass of case studies, and then comment on them when he feels like it. It's an interesting way to organize a book, but can be a little dizzying.

  • John David
    2019-04-29 03:33

    This book presents an extraordinarily complex set of historical data that even beginning to write about it seems like a daunting task. Making matters short and sweet for the sake of reviewing a book of such scholarship might not be advisable, but that’s what I’ll try to do here.This book carefully combines an analysis of folklore, popular tradition, and culture. In the Friuli region of Italy, a group known as the “benandanti” (literally “well-farers” or “good walkers” but literally translated here as the “night battlers”) leave their villages on prescribed nights of the year to engage in fights with witches. These men and women who identify themselves as benandanti are born with the caul – that is, a piece of amniotic sac around their necks – and are thereby marked as benandanti from birth. According to them, the purpose of these nighttime adventures were to fight witches who were trying to infect and kill crops; they saw themselves as protectors of the crop. Therefore, they are usually identified as an “agrarian cult.” The origins of this cult are ambiguous, but seem to date back to older German divinity cults, and especially the auspices of the goddess Diana. No matter their origins, this is most important: the benandanti always imagined themselves as warriors for the Christian God, and completely Christian themselves. The most fascinating part of the book, which by far takes up most of its content, is what happens when this cult meets the Catholic Church in the form of the Inquisition. Over a very long period of time, this interaction slowly turns a very Christian cult into a devilish coven of witches convening at a sabbat fighting against God, and therefore against the Church. Members were called before Church trials and demanded to explain their experiences. Some claimed that the night battles were oneiric visions, while others insinuated that they were quite “real.” Other irregularities were quickly latched onto by the Church, and it was soon turned into, at least in the eyes of the Church, nothing short of witchcraft. Because Ginzburg spends most of his time showing this careful transformation, the numerous – perhaps a few dozen – case studies presented are all carefully examined, sometimes dropped, picked up later in the text, and then re-examined; this can make the thread of the argument and its most prominent actors difficult to keep straight. Despite Ginzburg’s tight, short presentation, parts of the book can seem repetitive. Of course, this aspect of the book is essential for scholars of the Italian folklore of the time, but it can be more than a little tedious for someone just interested in one of the more seminal texts in the development of what we now call “microhistory.” While this might be difficult for someone with a less-than-scholarly interest in this material, it is nonetheless a careful and very important study that deserves the attention it has garnered.

  • John
    2019-04-27 10:37

    This was so cool. It only took an afternoon or so to read, and I have been thinking about it ever since. Really interesting stuff. It has the perennial problem that microhistories tend to have - is any of this really applicable to anything, or is this just a minor little neat corner of history - but it does get one thinking. Night Battles is about a small society of people discovered and investigated by the religious authorities; a people who shared a bizarre set of spiritual beliefs. In the late sixteenth century, a number of peasants who referred to themselves as benandanti began to attract the notice of inquisitors in northern Italy. These men, and a few women, claimed to have a special calling because they had been born with a caul – a piece of membrane which sometimes covers a newborn’s face at birth. The benandanti saw themselves as anti-witches, and soldiers of a sort, dedicated to identifying witches, curing their victims, and generally serving their communities against the forces of evil. One common belief was particularly extreme – a man named Moduco, addressing the inquisitors in 1580, explained it: "I am a benandanti because I go with the others to fight four times a year, that is during the Ember Days, at night; I go invisibly in spirit and the body remains behind; we go forth in the service of Christ…[we fight the witches of the devil] we with bundles of fennel and they with sorghum stalks." Many other self-proclaimed benandanti made identical claims, right down to the fennel and sorghum. They insisted that they were good Christians. They claimed that they were fighting to defend the harvest, and that if they lost to the witches the crops would fail. Fighting witches with fennel stalks! That is amazing. To the inquisitors, however, there were good Christians, and there were people who were magically transported to nighttime gatherings, and one could not possibly fall into both categories. The peasants were insistent – they were not witches, they fought witches for Christ. Over decades of repeated cases, however, the church managed to combine ideas about benandanti with ideas about witches, and in the public mind the two groups started to be indistinguishable. Examining this process, Ginzburg argues, may help us understand how ideas and definitions of witchcraft came to be codified. The benandanti may provide a “new approach to the problem of the popular origins of witchcraft.” Anyway. So cool. Apparently there were some people in Northern Europe who made similar claims, except they said they were werewolves who fought witches for the harvest. Crazy! It's like every historian's dream, to find some nutty little group like this to write a book about.

  • icaro
    2019-05-19 11:47

    quando vedo su un banco di libreria uno di quei tomi di centinaia di pagine, con titoli a sensazione e copertine a tinte forti che pretendono di spiegare che cosa sia stata la stregoneria, mi viene il nervoso e penso a Carlo Ginzburg.In questo libro, circa 250 pagine di piccolo formato, il più originale storico modernista italiano in attività, ricostruisce una vicenda di ritualità magica, senza fronzoli, ma con grande rigore filologico.E' stato il primo a ri-scoprire questi tipetti dei benandanti e poi molti ne hanno approffittato ma, a mio giudizio, l'originale resta sempre il migliore.Uno di quei lavori dai quali si può evincere che la storiografia seria forse è un "mattone", ma non è mai una palla.

  • John Wiswell
    2019-05-01 06:30

    In the 16th and 17th century a small group of people believed they left their bodies to fight in an astral war on behalf of God. Whether they were insane, mistaken or somehow right, the Church saw them as Satanists. This book is a terribly interesting examination of how the Church trampled individual spirituality and attempted to explain Pagan experiences with its own cosmology and morality. Carlo Ginzburg's research is distilled into very readable and accessible prose.

  • Valorie
    2019-05-20 07:52

    In The Night Battles, Carlo Ginzburg looks at a small group of northeastern Italian people from the area of Friuli who claimed to be 'benandanti.' The benandanti, according to their legend, were people born with "the caul," and battled witches to protect the harvest and people, and to heal people bewitched. A second strand of benandanti claimed to be witness to processions of the dead. Using a small set of inquisition documents to do his microhistory, Ginzburg claims that he can reconstruct the progression of benandanti identity from their perspective from those who battle witches to those who are witches. This new identity was imposed, according to Ginzburg, by the inquisitors who used leading questions and other devices such as fear to convince the accused benandanti into altering their confessions to fit the new model of witchcraft, which can be traced through the confession transcripts. The book contains four chapters and an appendix with a few of the transcripts included for reference. Chapter one introduces the benandanti, their beliefs, and the inquisitors; chapter two describes the benandanti who associate with the dead and traces possible links of origin; chapter three returns to the benandanti and the inquisitors, and to the evolution of the benandanti identity; and chapter four sees the conclusion of the benandanti fitting themselves into the accepted mold of witchcraft. There is no way Ginzburg can support, with his available evidence, what the true intentions of the benandanti were when they confessed to witchcraft practices. Was it that they became convinced of their own evil, or simply became indoctrinated out of fear and insistence to change stories to fit what they knew the inquisitors wanted regardless of what they knew to be truth? There is simply no way to know if the benandanti were only saying what they felt needed to be said, or if they actually accepted it as truth. Ginzburg does, unfortunately, make a lot of claims that cannot be substantiated. For example, he tells the story of a woman named Anna la Rossa who he admits never claimed to be a benandanti (35). Yet later on, Ginzburg refers to her as one of the benandanti (41 & 43) without ever proving that she was one. If anything, Ginzburg is merely reasserting that many different beliefs had origins in the same pagan traditions, or that ideas filtered through geographical space. In another case, Ginzburg claims that the trances during which benandanti left their bodies were ointment induced or caused by illness (59). Again, this is not something he can adequately support and therefore cannot state it as unquestionable. Regardless of this, Ginzburg's greatest achievements are two. First, he does a good job in his outlining of the various pagan traditional origins of witchcraft and other cults. Second, he has great success in showing how the inquisitorial process was able to impose beliefs with such effectiveness that people would admit to them even when they knew giving the answer that was desired would surely bring harm to them. It sheds light on the nature of the witch hunts and trials, and the confessions rendered.

  • Michael
    2019-05-03 08:28

    Carlo Ginzburg’s The Night Battles: Witchcraft and Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries deals with a previously little-known area of early modern European history. Ginzburg explores the case of the benandanti, or “good walkers”, who claimed to fight spirit battles against witches ensuring fruitful croups. Ginzburg argues that the benandanti were the remnants of a pre-Christian, agrarian, fertility cult. Further he claims that the intelligent and deliberate work of the church’s inquisition conformed the benandanti to the standard understanding of witchcraft in European; that is to say participants in diabolical sabbats. The majority of the book takes place in the trial rooms where alleged benandanti claim to fight on the side of the Christian God while facing interrogation that believes otherwise. In writing this book, Ginzburg hopes to do two different things. First, he intends to add new focus and perspective on the larger issue of “witchcraft and its persecution.” (xvii) Second, he intends to point back to a larger and much older, ancient agricultural and fertility cult that he believes existed throughout central Europe. (xx) This second purpose is touched on cursorily throughout the book, since it would require a scope much larger than he’s already focused on. Since Ginzburg’s thesis hinges on the active participation of church officials, it is fitting that he primarily mines records from the inquisitions of the benandanti themselves. From these trials we have the statements of the accused and of the inquisitors, but Ginzburg crafts a narrative in between to add color and emotion. The amount of material Ginzburg found related to such a small sector of history astonishes. In the preface, Ginzburg notes that while there have been somewhat recent investigations into Fruilian popular traditions, they have considered the term “‘benandante’ as synonymous with ‘witch’.” He suggests this is because these studies were limited to oral and more recent sources, which would have reflected the conversion of the benandanti to witchcraft that Ginzburg proposes. (xxi) Concerning itself with a spectacularly specific series of events within a small community, Night Battles acts as a prototype for microhistory; a genre that Ginzburg would help pioneer later in his career. Microhistory responds to the problem of post-modernism's subjective understanding of truth by sufficiently narrowing the historian's scope. Richard D. Brown believes microhistory acts as a "powerful corrective" to "skepticism" and reestablishes history as an "authoritative source of truth." Brown also suggests that the microhistory practiced by Ginzburg attempts to find larger cultural truths from within a microcosm. As we’ve already seen, Ginzburg claims early on to be exploring the "general problem” of the persecution of witchcraft. (xvii) His investigation into the benandanti, particularly the assimilation of benandanti into the church's perception of witchcraft, is aimed at exploring this larger idea from within the smaller scope of the trials taking place in and around Friuli. In exploring this subject Ginzburg grants some truth to the idea of an ancient pre-Christian, fertility cult originally posited by M. Murray. Unlike Murray, Ginzburg draws a line before trying to divine the practices and composition of this original cult instead pointing to our inability to see through centuries of acculturation. (xix) Ginzburg organizes Night Battles to show the gradual shift in the benandanti's self perception from a force of good fighting witchcraft to witches themselves. To accomplish this the book is divided into four sections, each divided between smaller topical sections either advancing the narrative or explaining the relevance of previous chapters to Ginzburg's thesis. The book opens with the introduction of the benandanti to the inquisitors, also suggesting links between them and older shamanic practices. The next section explores the connection between the benandanti and people who claimed to have contact with the dead. Here Ginzburg explores various other local superstitious traditions that sometimes intertwined with the practices or believes of the benandanti. The third section returns to the stories of benandanti fighting witches on the Ember Days with Ginzburg suggesting the beginning of a "period of swift, almost violent change." (69) Ginzburg explains this change in a shift of understanding regarding how the benandanti operating with the church officials forcing the accused to either confess some form of allegiance with witches or to admit they were fabricating their tails. Finally, the last section is devoted to the changing beliefs of the benandanti who Ginzburg alleges have come to believe that they are participants in the diabolical sabbat, bringing his thesis to fruition. Overall Ginzburg has written a thoroughly compelling book that begs the reader to continue turning the page. The captivating narrative directs readers through Ginzburg’s arguments and never feels forced. Ginzburg’s argument does well with what it is given, but nature of the topic and Ginzburg’s methodology hinders his ability to make larger suggestions effectively. For example, the suggestion that the benandanti stem from a larger, ancient cult remains just a suggestion. However, Ginzburg’s book still fascinates and has many strong arguments in favor of the rest of his thesis. Ginzburg’s fantastic use of sources and methodology make Night Battles an important work for history students to read.

  • Francesca
    2019-04-26 07:40

    Overall a highly compelling microhistory, particularly for those interested in that strange and wonderful region of Friuli, with Venetian inquisitorial practices, and with folk beliefs in early modern Europe.

  • Caprice Robinson
    2019-04-28 08:34

    It is all over the place and not in chronological order. You get information after you needed it not when you needed it.

  • Steve Cran
    2019-05-11 05:52

    In the area of Friuli Italy back during the medieval times there was a group of people properly known as the Banadante. There work was connected primarily to the agricultural farming seasons. There job was to protect the seeds and the harvest from the witches. Going to sleep at night lying on their backs there astral bodies would float thorough the air to meet the witches for battle. Armed with fennel sticks the Benadante were ready to defend , mean while the witches were armed with Sorghum sticks. Battle would ensue, no one really got killed but there were definite winners and losers. If the witches one it would be a year of famine if the Benadante won then it would be a bountiful year. Sometimes the Benadante ventured into Hell itself to rescue the seeds. Coming back from battle they would stop I houses and seek refreshment. If cool clear water was a available they slaked their thirst with it and if not then they would raid your basement drin the wine and then urinate in the barrels. Four times a year they would go out for battle, the ember days. Sometimes they went out every Thursday to do battle.How does o0ne become a Benadnate, one is born with a caul over their head. They keep the caul and have a priest say mass over it or a blessing. Often times the caul is worn on the person in order for them to participate in the battle. One is usually summoned in their early 20’s and their service ends when they are forty or whenever they are inclined to leave the service. Usually they are summoned by an angel or the captain . The banner for the good guys is a golden flag and a lion. The bad witches had a black flag.The bendnantes sometimes knew who each other were and who the witches were at other times they didn’t. They were vowed to silence unless they get beaten or killed.The Inquisition by the Catholic church which was started to route out heretics and witches took a lenient view toward the Benandante during the 1300’s . Often times they would question them and then let them go. As time progress they were associated more and more with witches and they could end up being imprisoned or tortured. They were often said to have gone to the witches sabbats and partaken in profane rites that blasphemed Christianity. A total change in attitude.It seems connected with the Witches sabbat where in a goddess like Diana in Italy or Hulda or Perchta led a procession of fairies or souls of the dead. At their sabbats they would dance, sing, drink and eat among other things. The inquisition often made it worse then what it was. Like Margaret Murray had [postulated that therer was an ancient pagan religion of Europe that was goddess and agricultural based that prdated Christianity. These seemed to be connected.Over all good book. The author does a great job explaining the concepts that even a layman would find it comprehensible and enjoyable. It is filled with case studies that document that change and progression of attitude by the church towards the Benadante. It get’s a bit over kill at the end with the appendices but then again this is a scholarly book.

  • Dan
    2019-05-02 10:55

    (Since this is a history book, and not a novel with a surprise twist at the end, be aware that this whole review is a spoiler - the events have already happened and should not be a surprise.)Carlo Ginzburg provides a fascinating window into how high learned culture and popular culture affected one another in the early modern world. The benandanti were members of an old fertility cult in northern Italy whose participants believed their souls left their bodies to fight witches at night, the victor determining whether the harvest succeeded or failed. Although they conceived themselves Christians and champions of the Catholic Church, the Inquisition felt otherwise. Ginzburg's main point is that through the interrogations and persecution of the Inquisition, over roughly a century, the benandanti came to see themselves as the witches that the inquisitors accused them of being. In essence, their answers changed from, "what is a sabbat?" to "yes, I go to diabolical sabbats at night," over time, due to the suggestions of the dominant, learned class. The methodology does have its flaws, but overall this is a valuable and interesting look into seventeenth-century religion.

  • Victor
    2019-04-30 07:44

    I had to read this book for my "Restorations" class in college, in which we covered the topics of religious restorations in late 15t and 16th century Europe.Ginzburg is clearly the authority and has establish a reputation as one of the most learned scholars in matters of inquisition and witch hunt. His narrative, which is presented in a more or less linear manner (one story leads to another in a very conscise way) and is tied together by the depositions of the accussed, mostly peasants, in northern Italy, in this books specifically in the region of Firuli.The contents of the book are taken from the account of those accused by the Roman Inquisition. The depositions tell of a semi-uniform story about nocturnal visionary journeys in which each benandanti leaves their body to fight malevolent witches and warlocks that are threatening their crops. Eventually, the church believes that benandanti are witches themselves and persecutes them.Ginzburg also compares the folk tales of the benandanti to other legends about witches, werewolves, warlocks, etc form other parts of Eastern and Northern Europe to establish parallelism between the different folk traditions of late medieval and early modern periods.

  • Darcy
    2019-04-21 05:38

    So, I'm no historian to start with; I read this out of curiosity.The narrow subject matter deals with the agrarian cult in Fruili called the benandanti. They have been recorded in depositions by the Holy Office from around 1400s - 1600s. The book deals with the roots of this fertility cult and its folklore, to a time when it was moulded to fit Christian motifs and ideas.I found it interesting and the chapters are bite size (though the paragraphs can be long). The book did not have a satisfying conclusion (it actually had no summing up at the end) but then maybe historians only seek to show, not dictate, what happened in history using the evidence available.Either way, it is a fascinating snapshot (based on accounts at the time) into that society and region.

  • Bettie☯
    2019-05-03 06:38

    1 of: The Night Battles: Witchcraft and Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries [Paperback:] By: Carlo Ginzburg, et alCondition: Used - GoodSold by: owlsmart_usa £6.94Having read the scrumptiously dark novel The Owl Killers I became quite intrigued with agrarian cults and with some help from Miriam steering me in the right direction, this is indeed the right book. So far I have read about the 'benandanti' and the Italian Branch of the Inquisition and now am reading about werewolves.Engrossing stuff!

  • J.M. Hushour
    2019-04-23 06:44

    Who wouldn't love this outstanding work of history? Ginzburg pored through Inquisiton archives previously inaccessible and brought us the story of the "benandanti", or "good-walkers". Largely rural folk, the benandanti of the Friuli in Italy were people with the ability to leave their bodies at night and battle witches and demons to protect the villages' crops and livestock. No shit. Numerous denunciations and interrogations of benandanti are discussed here. Even cooler, there is evidence elsewhere (the Livonian werewolf is my favorite example) of eerily similar rites occurring elsewhere in Europe at this time. Doesn't get much better than this.

  • Jay
    2019-05-10 10:36

    This book was impossibly dry. The information contained within it was often presented without appropriate background, or without the background presented first. I was often lead to read the same paragraph or section over and over again in an attempt to understand it - it was not well written. Though the subject matter was very interesting, the book itself was a disappointment simply because of how difficult it was to get the information out of it that it was intended - and attempted valiantly - to present to it's readers.

  • Dr. A.
    2019-04-20 10:34

    A book for Historians and one that probably needs some context. Ginzburg returns to the much berated works of Mary Murray and offers a new perspective on the witchhunts. The book lacks a good conclusion and often the author is merely making educated guesses unsupported by the evidence offered. For the well read on witchcraft this is a must read, but for the novice this book can not stand alone.

  • Moloch
    2019-05-05 09:35

    Come sempre, quando un saggio storico riporta le voci dei ceti subalterni, come nei verbali di un processo dell'Inquisizione, mi piace moltissimo. Qui si tratta di credenze popolari e culti agrari del Friuli.As always, when a history book reports the voices of the people, such as verbal of inquiries of the Inquisition, I love it. This one is about popular myths in Friuli (Northern Italy).

  • Danielle
    2019-05-15 08:46

    A really interesting look into the origins and applications of the witch craze in Europe. It's not just about midwives anymore! Instead you get to see the actual trials of the benandanti--a group of people in the Friuli region who fought against witches, but then came to be seen as witches through the Inquisition's manipulative tactics.

  • Teddy Elizabeth
    2019-04-22 09:51

    I had to read this for a class about Witchcraft. The book was interesting, but the author repeated himself a lot (about 2/3 of the book could be condensed into the other 1/3), and he wasn't able to prove his point extremely well. However, important points were made in the book, and I'm glad I read most of it.

  • Vincentvanstop
    2019-05-19 05:27

    so many things I love in this book: benandanti, werewolves, the procession of the dead, witches... a really fun book!I must remember to look further into the Kernstniki and the Vile(viljenaci), and history of the island of Arbe.

  • Giovanna
    2019-05-10 11:42

    Bello, chiaro,esauriente,interessante. Accessibile a qualsiasi tipo di pubblico. Ci riporta indietro ad un universo mentale per noi quasi inimmaginabile, presentandoci testimonianze dirette, vocI di persone esistite,pensieri di uomini e donne così lontani da noi nel tempo e nella sensibilità.

  • Sean Mccarrey
    2019-05-20 08:28

    This book concentrated on the sort of stuff that really fascinates me. It had elements of witchcraft and the occult, along with broader social and political structures. That being said, it lacked a certain amount of analysis that was bothersome for me. Over all though I liked it.

  • John
    2019-05-02 08:44

    Classic study of the disjunction between learned and popular conceptions of witchcraft in the early modern period.

  • Nicole
    2019-04-27 06:56

    Interesting topic, dry reading.

  • Shubhakiarti
    2019-05-09 04:54

    paganism performer in cult for fertility ---->>>> a group of unorthodox pious + inquisition------>>>>heretics

  • Sara J.
    2019-04-28 04:31

    Read this for my History of Witchcraft lecture. Interesting argument. Kind of repetitive, which is expected.

  • LoreeIverson
    2019-04-22 03:46

    Very clear, coherent and readable.

  • Alexander
    2019-04-25 07:34

    Ginzburg's books are great! He establishes a vivid image of the subject matter and the people involved through his clever synthesis of academic narrative and source material.

  • Karla Callejas c
    2019-04-21 09:44

    One of my favorites. A must read for students of early modern European history.